Chinese Religions: The eBook


  1. List of Illustrations
  2. Chinese Dynastic History
    1. BCE
    2. CE
  3. Preface and Acknowledgements
  4. Conventions
  5. Introduction
    1. Study of Chinese Religion
    2. Main Religious Traditions
    3. Organization of the Book
  6. Chapter 1: Early Patterns of Chinese Religious Life

    1. Historical Frameworks
    2. Oracle Bones and Divination
    3. Worship of Gods and Ancestors under the Shang
    4. Changing Attitudes towards Divinity during the Zhou Era
    5. Cultural Heroes and Sage-kings
    6. Chinese Mythology
    7. Mandate of Heaven
  7. Chapter 2: The Classical Confucian Tradition

    1. Various Faces of Confucianism
    2. The Five “Confucian” Classics
    3. Confucius and his Times
    4. Teachings of Confucius
    5. Government Service, Cultural Virtuosity, and Pursuit of Sagehood
    6. Alternative Ways of Thought
    7. Mengzi's and Xunzi's Contrasting Views of Human Nature
    8. Emergence of Confucianism as Official Ideology
  8. Chapter 3: Early Texts and the Emergence of Religious Daoism

    1. The Dao
    2. Shifting Boundaries and Permeable Identities
    3. Zhuangzi's Imaginative Vistas and Carefree Wanderings
    4. Laozi's ruminations on the indescribable Dao
    5. The Huang-Lao Movement and other Han-era Transitions
    6. The Celestial Masters and the Advent of Daoism as an Organized Religion
    7. External Alchemy and the Quest for Immortality
    8. Laozi's Transfigurations
  9. Chapter 4: Daoist Traditions and Practices

    1. The Shangqing Revelations
    2. The Lingbao Scriptures
    3. Codification of Daoist Ritual
    4. Canon Formation and Functions of Texts
    5. Daoism as Official Religion
    6. Interreligious Debates
    7. Monastic Orders and Institutions
    8. Female Role Models and Adepts
    9. Internal Alchemy and Meditation
  10. Chapter 5: Spread and Flourishing of Buddhism in China

    1. Buddhism as Pan-Asian Religion
    2. Initial Entry of Buddhism into China
    3. Incisive Critiques and Cultural Barriers
    4. Enthusiastic Reponses and Broad Acceptance
    5. Translation of Scriptures and Canon Formation
    6. Popular Scriptures and other Texts
    7. Philosophical Systems and Doctrinal Taxonomies
    8. Emergence of Buddhism as a Major Religious Tradition
    9. Golden Age under the Tang Dynasty
    10. Relationship with the State
    11. Buddhism in Late Imperial China
  11. Chapter 6: Schools and Practices of Chinese Buddhism

    1. Monastic and Lay Paradigms
    2. Universal Compassion and Merit Making
    3. Popular Beliefs and Cultic Practices
    4. Schools and Traditions of Chinese Buddhism
    5. The Tiantai School
    6. The Huayan School
    7. The Chan School
    8. The Pure Land Tradition
  12. Chapter 7: Popular Religion

    1. Contours and Character of Popular Religion
    2. Syncretism
    3. Unity of the Three Teachings
    4. Ancestors and Ghosts
    5. Worship of Local Gods
    6. Celestial Bureaucracy
    7. Two Popular Deities: Guandi and Mazu
    8. Ritual Sacrifice, Divination, and other Utilitarian Practices
    9. Millenarian Movements, Heterodox Sects, and Secret Societies
  13. Chapter 8: Later Transformations of Confucianism

    1. Confucianism during the Medieval Period
    2. Neo- Confucian Revival of the Song Era
    3. Zhu Xi's Grand Synthesis
    4. Constructing Genealogy of the Way
    5. Revising the Canon
    6. Path to Sagehood
    7. Civil Service Examinations
    8. Dissenting Voices and Alternative Perspectives
    9. Status of Women in Confucian Society
  14. Chapter 9: Christianity, Islam, and other “Western” Religions

    1. Entry of “Western” Religions into Tang China
    2. Early Christian Missionaries
    3. Jesuit Missions of the Late Ming Era
    4. Catholic Debates over Acculturation
    5. Protestant Missionaries in the Ninetieth Century
    6. Chinese Son of God
    7. Early Transmission of Islam
    8. Adaptation and Growth of Islam
    9. Acculturation and Conflict in Chinese Islam
    10. Islam as Diverse Minority Religion
  15. Chapter 10: Religion in Modern China

    1. Historical Contexts
    2. Facing the Challenges of Modernity
    3. Revitalization of Confucianism in Republican China
    4. Buddhist Revival of the Republican Era
    5. Religious Repression under Early Communist Rule
    6. The Cult of Mao
    7. Contemporary Religious Revivals
    8. Intersections of Religion and Politics
    9. Growth of Christianity
    10. Buddhist Resurgence
  16. Appendix: Chinese Festivals and Anniversary Celebrations
    1. Major Chinese Festivals
    2. Important Birthdays and Commemorative Celebrations
  17. Chinese Glossary
  18. Bibliography

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